Ancient Egypt was one of the first advanced ancient civilizations, which existed over 5,000 years ago, and it endured the longest of any other civilization. Egypt was born 3,000 B.C when the pharaoh Menes united the tribes that settled along the Nile river.
● One of the first civilizations and endured the longest
● Built the world's first stone monolith
● The tallest building
● World's first dam-the first dam ever built was in Memphis, the capital of Egypt.
● The first to use paper
"The Egyptians were, if not quite the earliest, at least among the earliest of all the peoples of the world to find out how to put down their thoughts in writing, or in other words, to make a book; and one of their old books, full of wise advice from a father to his son, is, perhaps, the oldest book in the world.
Two words which we are constantly using might help to remind us of how much we owe to their cleverness. The one is "Bible," and the other is "paper."
When we talk of the Bible, which just means "the Book," we are using one of the words which the Greeks used to describe the plant out of which the Egyptians made the material on which they wrote; and when we talk of paper, we are using another name, the commoner name, of the same plant.
For the Egyptians were the first people to make paper, and they used it for many centuries before other people had learned how much handier it was than the other things which they used."
BY REV. JAMES BAIKIE, F.R.A.S.
Following are only a few of the magnificent achievements of the Ancient Egyptian people.
The Great Sphinx
The Great Sphinx is a limestone statue of a reclining sphinx, a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. Facing directly from West to East, it stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues.
Over the years several authors have commented on what they perceive as "Negroid" characteristics in the face of the Sphinx. This issue has become part of the Ancient Egyptian race controversy, with respect to the ancient population as a whole.
The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
The Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut is a mortuary temple of Ancient Egypt located in Upper Egypt. Built for the Eighteenth Dynasty pharaoh Hatshepsut, it is located beneath the cliffs at Deir el-Bahari on the west bank of the Nile near the Valley of the Kings. Construction of the temple of Hatshepsut took fifteen years, between the 7th and the 22nd years of her reign. . . .The site chosen by Hatshepsut for her temple was the product of precise strategic calculations. The main and axis of the temple is set to an azimuth of about 116½° and is aligned to the winter solstice sunrise, which in our modern era occurs around the 21st or 22 December each year. The sunlight penetrates through to the rear wall of the chapel, before moving to the right to highlight one of the Osiris statues that stand on either side of the doorway to the 2nd chamber. It is considered one of the "incomparable monuments of ancient Egypt."
The Temple Of Luxor
The temple of Luxor, or “temple of man”, was built over a period of five centuries.The temple was built with sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila area, which is located in South-Western Egypt. This sandstone from the Gebel el-Silsila region is referred to as Nubian Sandstone. Luxor temple is dedicated to the rejuvenation of kingship. Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the Nile River, and the expression of artistic genius is unequaled.
The Temples of Karnak
The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak comprises a vast mix of temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings near Luxor, in Egypt. It is believed to be the second most visited historical site in Egypt; only the Giza Pyramids near Cairo receive more visits. The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed. Construction of temples started in the Middle Kingdom and continued into Ptolemaic times. Approximately thirty pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity, and diversity not seen elsewhere.
The Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples carved out of the mountainside at Abu Simbel, a village in Nubia, Upper Egypt, near the border with Sudan, in the 13th century BC, during the 19th dynasty reign of the Pharaoh Ramses II. They serve as a lasting monument to the king and his beautiful Queen Nefertari. Their huge external rock relief figures have become iconic. The Great Temple at Abu Simbel, which took about twenty years to build, was completed around year 24 of the reign of Ramesses the Great (which corresponds to 1265 BC). It is generally considered the grandest and most beautiful of the temples commissioned during the reign of Ramesses II, and one of the most beautiful in Egypt.
The Great Pyramid
Considered by the Greeks to be of the "seven wonders of the world," the Great Pyramid at Giza consists of 2 million limestone blocks, each weighing up to 15 tons. The pyramid is aligned true north, and the base forms an almost perfect square. The base is 756 feet long on each side covering 13.1 acres.
Five major European cathedrals could all fit inside. The great pyramid is 482 feet high, 178 feet taller than the statue of liberty, and the only seven wonders still standing. How the Egyptians moved stone blocks, some being quarried from more than 400 miles away has baffled scholars.